I watch a lot of lessons in lots of schools and colleges and, although contexts vary and teachers vary, the issues that arise are really very common. This isn’t that surprising really – but it does mean that we ought to be able to anticipate the issues as part of a CPD process.
Over the last few years, my thinking around lesson observation has evolved considerably, moving firmly away from the language of judgement and the giver-receiver power dynamics embedded in top-down lesson feedback. Now, I believe strongly in taking a problem-solving approach, recognising teachers’ challenges and using my expertise to help them through discussion to formulate approaches that might address them more effectively. The spirit of this is very different.
So, rather than listing the common feedback I might give, I’m now only thinking of the common problems that come up in our discussions. It’s a much healthier way to frame the whole thing. Here’s the list – which somehow turned into a bit of of a teacherhead.com blog-round up.
The key issue is finding a good mix of techniques that help to involve all students in thinking and then give the teacher a good sample of responses, without letting just a few students dominate. It’s very common for some students to be disconnected from questioning processes and teachers often find it hard to involve the least confident students – worried about their self-esteem if they get things wrong. A common pitfall is the over-reliance on just one or two answers as if they represent the whole class. There’s so much to discuss and plenty of solutions to all this:
The Dynamics of Questioning….agile, responsive, nimble, purposeful.
Increasingly I find that it’s important and useful to explore teaching techniques through the twin-tracks of a) defining specific techniques so they are deployed…Keep reading
Cold Call Forensics: purpose; spirit; details.
I probably discuss cold calling more than any other teaching technique. I think this is because I feel it makes a very big difference…Keep reading
Cold Call Variations
In a previous post, Cold Calling: The #1 strategy for inclusive classrooms, I’ve outlined the essence of the Cold Calling technique and why it…Keep reading
Five Ways to: Scaffold Classroom Dialogue
Five Ways. A series of short posts summarising some everyday classroom practices. The essence of scaffolding is that students are elevated to a level…Keep reading
Modelling with Checks for Understanding
Here the challenge teachers face is balancing the time and thinking given to modelling – giving explanations, showing how things are done, laying out a set of ideas or procedures where you have to focus on what you’re doing yourself – and the process of checking whether students have understood so that they can all now do things themselves. Nearly always, the really hard part is that some students succeed whilst others still struggle. How do we know if our explanatory inputs and our modelling sequences have worked? Very often solutions lie in breaking things down into smaller steps, interspersing our inputs with some practice of the sub-steps and some checks for understanding, generally being more explicit about students succeeding with more repetition and a longer hand-over period in the I Do, We Do, You Do flow.
The art of modelling… it’s all in the handover.
Some of the most interesting discussions I’ve had with teachers in recent times have been about the…Keep reading
Five Ways to Secure Progress Through Modelling
A central feature of an instructional teaching process is for a teacher to show their students how…Keep reading
Five Ways to: Check for Understanding
Five Ways. A series of short posts summarising some everyday classroom practices. In Rosenshine’s Principles of Instruction,…Keep reading
Check for Understanding… why it matters and how to do it. #rEDSurrey21
This post gives the key points from my ResearchEd Surrey talk at Farnham Heath End School. Firstly,…Keep reading
The Ladder of Difficulty within the material
This is really common – and is very subject specific in nature. In order to lead a mixed group through a section of curriculum so that they have the right blend of challenge and confidence-building, leading to deep understanding and excellent outcomes, it’s so important to have a sense of what the ladder of difficulty looks like in the subject, recognising that students won’t all progress at the same rate.
Difficulty is a mix of inherent conceptual complexity dictated by the tasks and questions, moving from rehearsal mode into a more fluent mode with the capacity to explain and then the capacity to undertake more synoptic tasks, applying knowledge to new situations. It can also mean the length or scale of the task or the need to work more fully independently without scaffolds. The key is first to know what an incremental ladder of difficulty looks like in the subject and then to have good resources and activities to support students to climb it step by step.
Beyond Dependency Learning: scaffolding, crutches and stabilisers.
One of the challenges we face as teachers is knowing how much help to give. There are so many examples of structured support across a…Keep reading
Teaching to the Top: Attitudes and strategies for delivering real challenge.
Teaching to top has been a long-standing principle of effective teaching from my perspective. One of my early blogs was ‘Gifted and Talented Provision: A…Keep reading
Five Ways to: Build Confidence
There’s a lot to learn! Sometimes it feels overwhelming – especially to students with the least confidence; the weakest knowledge; the most tentative grasp of…Keep reading
Five Ways to: Build Fluency
Five Ways. A series of short posts summarising some everyday classroom practices. Fluency is a concept in learning that suggests recall from memory with minimal effort and…Keep reading
Task Completion Masking Learning
Here the issue is that it’s just so easy to assume that when students are doing things and producing work in the books, that they must be learning. If we coo about the gorgeous work that students do – the lovely table and neat-looking writing – there’s a risk that we extrapolate from that to indicate their underlying understanding only to discover later that they don’t really understand things as well as we’d like. The main solution lies in constantly questioning this – to avoid making the assumption. Tasks are needed for learning to develop – but we then need processes for checking understanding. We need students to understand this about themselves. This issue is explored in various other places:
Poor Proxies for Learning. Powerful insights from Prof Coe:
One of the very best pieces of work in communicating education research is the What Makes Great Teaching report from 2014. Around this time Professor…Keep reading
From “I’ve done it” to “I’ve learned it”. Terminate the tyranny of the task.
If you go into lessons as an observer, it’s pretty standard to sit alongside a student and to engage in a short discussion about their…Keep reading
The #1 problem/weakness in teaching and how to address it.
I see a lot of lessons – hundreds of them in multiple contexts – and I’m going to suggest that there is one very common…Keep reading
Retrieval Routines; addressing the gaps
In this area, the challenge teachers face is ensuring that the processes for retrieval practice are actually working. You teach some material, you show students how to study – they you set a low stakes quiz and go over the answers. And still… students can have plenty of gaps. The questions that come up include the nature of the material and how students can study it; how the teacher can know how well the students did; how to organise the process of learning from the test – how much to re-teach, how much time to give it in the flow of lessons, when to accept that we might have to return to it later rather than slog away here and now. Importantly, it’s essential not to assume that simply running the routines is enough, over-emphasising correctness and high success rates such that weaker students mask the difficulties they are experiencing.
When daily quiz regimes become lethal mutations of retrieval practice.
One of the most common areas of development in schools over the last few years has been in the area of retrieval practice – supporting students to remember…Keep reading
Schema-building: A blend of experiences and retrieval modes make for deep learning.
Learning is complicated so it can be useful to use conceptual models to help understand and discuss it. For me, a powerful concept is the idea that we…Keep reading
Five Ways to: Do Daily Review
Five Ways. A series of short posts summarising some everyday classroom practices. It’s now very common practice for teachers to begin a lesson with some form of retrieval…Keep reading
10 Techniques for Retrieval Practice
Image Credit: https://emptechgroup.com/the-internet-of-things/ I’ve written about retrieval practice several times in other posts but here I just want to make it easy to lay out various alternative methods…Keep reading
The final common area for discussion is in the area of behaviour management. This is often related to the need to switch between modes of questioning – pair share, white boards, cold calling – and teachers’ challenges in securing full engagement at each phase. It’s quite common for teachers not to follow through on the things they ask students to do and it’s worth exploring what inhibits them from being insistent. Often I find teachers need extra encouragement to embrace a warm-strict spirit, being more consistently assertive in securing appropriate student responses to a request whilst keeping things positive. Again, there are lots of sources of guidance:
Everyday Routines. Classroom dialogue and behaviour management, hand-in-hand.
I’ve often felt that it is helpful to link behaviour management techniques to learning routines so that the behaviour routines have an explicit purpose and,…Keep reading
Behaviour Management: A Bill Rogers Top 10
Behaviour Management Strategies from Bill Rogers Without doubt the greatest personal challenge I’ve faced as a teacher was moving from the Sixth Form college in…Keep reading
Relationships at school. Teacher-student.
This post is Part 2 from two, based on a talk I gave to the Kings’ Schools in Dubai in August. Part One was about…Keep reading
Here’s a one-page summary to download made by design magician Matt Stone
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